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Publications and Working Papers

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“Law and the Political System in Xi Jinping's China,” in Daniel Lynch Stanley Rosen (ed.), Chinese Politics: The Xi Jinping Difference (Routledge 2024): 17-43

An Exchange on Legal Orientalism: Response to Professor Ruskola,” American Journal of Comparative Law, vol. ___, no. ___ (online publication June 21, 2023)

The Chinese Legal System in U.S. Courts,” Testimony Before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, Hearing on "Rule by Law: China's Increasingly Global Legal Reach," May 4, 2023 []

Judging China: The Chinese Legal System in U.S. Courts,” University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law, vol. 44, no. 3 (2023): 455-618

Review of Shucheng Wang, Law as an Instrument: Sources of Chinese Law for Authoritarian Legality (Cambridge University Press 2022) (forthcoming in Asian Journal of Comparative Law) [Working paper version, Nov. 7, 2022:].

Order and Law in China,” University of Illinois Law Review, vol. 2022, no. 2 (2022): 541-595

“Robin Munro, 1952-2021,” Journal of Comparative Law, vol. 16, no. 2 (2021): 691-696,

New Zealand’s Troubling Precedent for China Extradition,” Lawfare, June 15, 2021,

“Hong Kong National Security Law: New Institutions Show China’s True Intent,” South China Morning Post, July 17, 2020,

“Hong Kong’s National Security Law: An Assessment,” China Leadership Monitor, July 13, 2020,

“Anti Anti-Orientalism, or Is Chinese Law Different?,” American Journal of Comparative Law, vol. 68, no. 1 (2020), [online pre-print:]

“Who Owns Huawei?” (with Christopher Balding), May 8, 2019, available at 

“Winter Settles on Chinese Universities: What Does Xu Zhangrun’s Punishment Mean for Hopes of Academic Freedom?”, Foreign Policy, April 1, 2019,

“The Zhong Lun Declaration on the Obligations of Huawei and Other Chinese Companies under Chinese Law,” March 28, 2019, available at 

Review of Kwai Hang Ng & Xin He, Embedded Courts: Judicial Decision-Making in China, China Quarterly, no. 237 (March 2019): 266-67

China’s Hostage Diplomacy,” Lawfare, Jan. 11, 2019,

China Is Holding Two Canadians as Hostages. It’s Not Even Denying It.Washington Post, Dec. 17, 2018,

No, New Xinjiang Legislation Does not Legalize Detention Centers,” Lawfare, Oct. 11, 2018,

"Form and Function in China’s Urban Land Regime: The Irrelevance of 'Ownership'," Land Use Policy, vol. 79 (Dec. 2018): 902-912

"Animal Sci. Prods., Inc. v. Hebei Welcome Pharm. Co.: Respect but Verify: Foreign Government Statements of Foreign Law Do Not Get Conclusive Deference," Geo. Wash. L. Rev. on the Docket (June 21, 2018),

"Do Western Media Focus Too Much on Human Rights Issues in China,” Hong Kong Free Press, Jan. 13, 2018,

"The Bonding Effect in Chinese Cross-Listed Companies: Is It Real?", in Nicholas C. Howson & Robin Hui Huang (ed.), Enforcement of Corporate and Securities Law: China and the World (Cambridge University Press 2017): 88-100 [Working paper version: "The Bonding Effect in Cross-Listed Chinese Companies: Is It Real?”, Dec. 31, 2015, GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2015-55, available at]

“The Law of China’s Local Government Debt: Local Government Financing Vehicles and Their Bonds” (with Fang Lu), American Journal of Comparative Law, vol. 65 (2017): 751-798 [Working paper: "The Law of China’s Local Government Debt Crisis: Local Government Financing Vehicles and Their Bonds," GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-31, available at]

"Has China Restored Private Land Ownership?", Foreign Affairs, May 16, 2017, available at

Don’t Ask, Don’t Sell: The Criminalization of Business Intelligence in China and the Case of Peter Humphrey,” UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal, vol. 33, no. 2 (2016): 109-153

"The Paradox at the Heart of China's Property Regime," Foreign Policy, Jan. 19, 2017, available at

“Blowback: How China’s Efforts to Bring Private-Sector Standards into the Public Sector Backfired,” in Curtis Milhaupt & Benjamin Liebman (ed.), Regulating the Visible Hand? The Institutional Implications of Chinese State Capitalism (Oxford University Press 2015): 29-48

"China's Legal System and the Fourth Plenum," Asia Policy, no. 20 (July 2015): 10-16, available at; pre-publication draft available at

“Judicial Innovation in Chinese Corporate Law,” in John O. Haley & Toshiko Takenaka (ed.), Legal Innovations in Asia: Judicial Law-Making and the Influence of Comparative Law (Edward Elgar, 2014): 259-272

“Alibaba Shareholder Disenfranchisement: Worse than You Think,” FT Alphaville, Oct. 20, 2014,

"The Significance of Recent Detentions for the Rule of Law in China," testimony before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, in Understanding China’s Crackdown on Rights Advocates: Personal Accounts and Perspectives, April 8, 2014, available at

"China’s Stealth Urban Land Revolution," Am. J. Comp. L., vol. 62, no. 2 (Spring 2014): 323-366

"The Bo Xilai Trial and China's 'Rule of Law': Same Old, Same Old," The Atlantic, Aug. 21, 2013,

"Why Hefei?", Caixin Online, July 27, 2012,

Pathway to Minority Shareholder Protection: Derivative Actions in the People’s Republic of China” (with Nicholas C. Howson), in Dan W. Puchniak, Harald Baum & Michael Ewing-Chow (ed.), The Derivative Action in Asia: A Comparative and Functional Approach (Cambridge University Press, 2012): 243-295 (working paper version available at (Chinese translation available at

外资控制了中国互联网吗”, 财新网, July 22, 2011, (Chinese-language version of “Who Owns the Chinese Internet” below)

Who Owns the Chinese Internet?”, Caixin Online, July 15, 2011,; also in Caixin Weekly, no. 36 (July 25, 2011): 58-60

China’s Jasmine Crackdown and the Legal System,” East Asia Forum (Australian National University), May 26, 2011,

‘Nothing But Wind’? The Past and Future of Comparative Corporate Governance,” Am. J. Comp. L., vol. 59, no. 1 (Winter 2011): 75-110

Law Without Order in Chinese Corporate Governance Institutions,” 30 Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus. 131 (2010)

New Approaches to the Study of Political Order in China,” Modern China, vol. 36, no. 1 (2010): 87-99 (translated as 《研究中国政治秩序的新方法》 ,《开放时代》2009年第12期)

Lawyers and the State: Recent Developments,” testimony before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Washington, D.C., October 7, 2009

The Private Attorney-General in China: Potential and Pitfalls,” Wash. U. Global Studies L. Rev., vol. 8, no. 2 (2009): 241-255

“The Role of Non-Legal Institutions in Chinese Corporate Governance,” in Curtis Milhaupt, Kon-Sik Kim and Hideki Kanda (ed.), Transforming Corporate Governance in East Asia (Routledge, 2008): 168-192

China’s Legal System: New Developments, New Challenges (Cambridge University Press, 2008) (edited volume)

The Role of Law in China’s Economic Development” (with Peter Murrell and Susan Whiting), in Thomas Rawski and Loren Brandt (ed.), China’s Great Economic Transformation (Cambridge University Press, 2008): 375-428 (translated as 法律在中国经济发展中的作用, in 劳伦•勃兰特、托马斯•罗斯基 编,《伟大的中国经济转型》(上海:格致出版社、上海人民出版社 2009)

"China: Creating a Legal System for a Market Economy," Nov. 7, 2007 (report prepared for the Asian Development Bank), available at

"The Chinese Legal System Since 1995: Steady Development, Striking Continuities," China Quarterly, no. 191 (Sept. 2007): 555-566

"Legislating for a Market Economy in China," China Quarterly, no. 191 (Sept. 2007): 567-585

"Three Concepts of the Independent Director," Delaware Journal of Corporate Law, vol. 32, no. 1 (2007): 73-111

"The Independent Director in Chinese Corporate Governance," Delaware Journal of Corporate Law, vol. 31, no. 1 (2006): 125-228

“Lost in Translation? Corporate Legal Transplants in China” (July 3, 2006), GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 213, available at 

"Setting the Record Straight: Three Concepts of the Independent Director," March 17, 2006, GWU Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper No. 199

"The Role of Law in China's Economic Development" (with Peter Murrell and Susan Whiting), Jan. 27, 2006, GWU Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper No. 187

"How Do We Know When an Enterprise Exists? Unanswerable Questions and Legal Polycentricity in China," Columbia Journal of Asian Law, vol. 19, no. 1 (2005 [2006]): 50-71

"Zhengfu chigu yu Zhongguo gongsi zhili" (Government Shareholding and Chinese Corporate Governance), Hongfan Pinglun (Hongfan Review [Journal of Legal and Economic Studies]), vol. 2, no. 2 (Sept. 2005): 230-248

"Yige bing bu yuan de waiguo yueliang: Meiguo fan neimu jiaoyi de falü zhidu 一个并不圆的外国月亮:美国反内幕交易的法律制度" (A Foreign Moon That Is not Round: America's Anti-Insider Trading Legal Regime), Hongfan Pinglun 洪范评论 (Hongfan Review [Journal of Legal and Economic Studies]), vol. 2, no. 1 (March 2005): 225-238

"Law, Institutions, and Property Rights in China" (with Peter Murrell and Susan Whiting), Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Asia Program Special Report, No. 129, 2005: 42-47

"Zhongguo xiuding 'Xing Fa' pingjia 中国修订刑法评价" (An Assessment of China's Revisions to the "Criminal Law"), in Chuanxi Xu (ed.), Zhongguo Shehui Zhuanxing Shiqi de Falü Fazhan 中国社会转型时期的法律发展 (The Development of Law in China's Transitional Society), Beijing: Falü Chubanshe 法律出版社 (Law Press), 2004): 448-492 [pre-publication draft]

“The Enforcement of United States Court Judgments in China: A Research Note” (May 27, 2004), available at 

"Corporate Governance in China: An Overview," China Economic Review, vol. 14, no. 4 (2003): 494-507 [SSRN version | request published version] (Chinese version (slightly modified) available at

"Xintuo zeren de zhenzheng yiyi -- yu Lang Xianping jiaoshou shangque 信托责任的真正意义-- 与郎咸平教授商榷" (The True Meaning of Fiduciary Liability: A Discussion with Professor Lang Xianping), Zhongguo Zhengquan Bao 中国证券报 (China Securities News), Dec. 5, 2003 [on-line text | PDF file including Prof. Lang's article | scan of print version]

"Empirical Research in Chinese Law," in Erik Jensen & Thomas Heller (eds.), Beyond Common Knowledge: Empirical Approaches to the Rule of Law (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003): 164-192 [SSRN version | request published version]

"Duli dongshi yu Zhongguo gongsi zhili 独立董事与中国公司治理" (The Independent Director and Chinese Corporate Governance), in Liufang Fang 方流芳 (ed.), Fa Da Pinglun 法大评论 (China University of Politics and Law Review), vol. 2 (Beijing: China University of Politics and Law Press, 2003)

"Corporatisation, Not Privatisation", China Economic Quarterly, vol. 7, no. 3 (2003): 27-30

"Economic Development and the Rights Hypothesis: The China Problem," American Journal of Comparative Law, vol. 51 (2003): 89-111

Review of Peter Murrell (ed.), Assessing the Value of Law in Transition Economies (Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 2001), in Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 41 (June 2003): 624-625 [self-opening file | PDF version]

"China's Legal System and the WTO: Prospects for Compliance," Washington University Global Studies Law Review, vol. 2, no. 1 (2003): 97-118 [Chinese translation]

"Fazhi yu WTO: Zhongguo Dui Shi Mao de Chengnuo Qianjing Zhanwang 法制与WTO: 中国对世贸的承诺前景展望" (Legal System and the WTO: Prospects for China's WTO Commitments), Ren yu Renquan 人与人权 (Humanity and Human Rights), no. 9 (May 2003) [Chinese translation of "China's Legal System and the WTO" listed above] [on-line HTML version]

"Puzzling Observations in Chinese Law: When Is a Riddle Just a Mistake?" in C. Stephen Hsu (ed.), Understanding China's Legal System (New York: New York University Press, 2003): 93-121

"China" (with Nicholas Howson and Lester Ross), in Insolvency & Restructuring 2003 (London: Law Business Research, 2003): 70-77

Statement Before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China (June 6, 2002), in "WTO: Will China Keep Its Promises? Can It?", Hearing Before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, 107th Congress, Second Session (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002): 66-78 [HTML | PDF]

Statement Before the United States-China Security Review Commission (Jan. 18, 2002) [on China's accession to the World Trade Organization], in Compilation of Hearings Held Before the U.S.-China Security Review Commission, 107th Congress, First and Second Sessions (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002): 1171-1181

 "China" (with Lester Ross), in Insolvency & Restructuring 2002 (London: Law Business Research, 2002): 57-63 (Chapter 9)

"Zhongguo de jiufen jiejue 中国的纠纷解决" (Dispute Resolution in China), in Jiang Shigong (ed.), Tiaojie, Fazhi yu Xiandaixing: Zhongguo Tiaojie Zhidu Yanjiu 调解,法治与现代性:中国调解制度研究 (Mediation, Legality, and Modernity: Studies in the Chinese Mediation System) (Beijing: Zhongguo fazhi chubanshe 中国法制出版社, 2001) (translation of "Dispute Resolution in China" listed below)

"Zhongguo tudi shiyong guanli zi xia er shang de celüe 中国土地使用管理自下而上的策略" (A Bottom-Up Strategy for Land Use Regulation in China), in Chi Fulin (ed.), Zouru 21 Shiji de Zhongguo Nongcun Tudi Zhidu Gaige 走入21 世纪的中国农村土地制度改革 (China's Rural Land System Reform Going Into the 21st Century) (Beijing: China Economic Publishing House, 2000): 299-303

"Incentives and the Bottom-Up Approach to Land-Use Regulation in China" [English version | Chinese translation] (working paper, Jan. 31, 2000)

"Chûgokuhô kenkyû no apurôchi: 'hô no shihai' paradaimu wo koete 中国研究のアプローチ:"法の支配”パラダイムを超えて" (Approaches to Chinese Law: Beyond the 'Rule of Law' Paradigm), Hikaku Hôgaku 比較法学 (Studies in Comparative Law), vol. 34, no. 1 (2000): 73-91

"Alternative Approaches to Chinese Law: Beyond the 'Rule of Law' Paradigm," Waseda Proceedings of Comparative Law, vol. 2 (1998-1999): 49-62

"Dispute Resolution in China: The Arbitration Option" (with Angela H. Davis), in Asia Law and Practice (ed.), China 2000: Emerging Investment, Funding and Advisory Opportunities for a New China (Hong Kong: Euromoney Publications (Jersey) Limited, 1999): 151-162; translated into Russian as "Разрешение споров в Китае: выбор Арбитража"

"China and the World Trade Organization," in Freshfields (ed.), Doing Business in China (Yonkers, N.Y.: Juris Publishing, 1999): I-11.1 to I-11.30

"Private Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights in China," NBR Analysis, vol. 10, no. 2 (April 1999): 29-41; translated into Japanese as "Chiteki shoyûken no shiteki gyôshi 知的所有権の私的ぎょうし" [alternate source]

Wrongs and Rights: A Human Rights Analysis of China's Revised Criminal Code (New York: Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, December 1998)

"State Council Notice Nullifies Statutory Rights of Creditors," East Asian Executive Reports, vol. 19, no. 4 (April 15, 1997): 9-15

"Power and Politics in the Chinese Court System: The Execution of Civil Judgments," Columbia Journal of Asian Law, vol. 10, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 1-125

"The Creation of a Legal Structure for Market Institutions in China," in John McMillan & Barry Naughton (eds.), Reforming Asian Socialism: The Growth of Market Institutions (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996): 39-59

"The Execution of Civil Judgments in China," China Quarterly, no. 141 (March 1995): 65-81; translated into Japanese as "Chûgoku ni okeru minji hanketsu no kyôsei shikkô," in Hikota Koguchi (ed.), Chûgoku no Keizai Hatten to Hô (Tokyo: Waseda University Institute of Comparative Law, 1998): 343-367

"China's New Partnership Law" (with Nicholas Howson and Gangliang Qiao), The China Business Review, July-August 1997: 30-33

"Shanghai Measures on Land Use by FIEs: An Indication of Coming Changes in the National System?" (with Nicholas C. Howson), East Asian Executive Reports, vol. 18, no. 11 (November 15, 1996): 9-13

"Bill Jones: An Appreciation," Washington University Law Quarterly, vol. 74 (Fall 1996): 545-546

"One Step Back Permits Two Steps Forward," China Rights Forum, Fall 1996: 8-11

"Developing P.R.C. Property and Real Estate Law:  Revised Land Registration Rules" (with Nicholas C. Howson), East Asian Executive Reports, vol. 18, no. 4 (April 15, 1996): 9, 13-17

"Methodologies for Research in Chinese Law," University of British Columbia Law Review, vol. 30, no. 1 (1996): 201-209

"Antagonistic Contradictions: Criminal Law and Human Rights in China" (with James V. Feinerman), China Quarterly, no. 141 (March 1995): 135-154

"Justice and the Legal System," in Robert Benewick & Paul Wingrove (eds.), China in the 1990s (London: Macmillan, 1995): 83-93

"GATT Membership for China?," University of Puget Sound Law Review [succeeded by Seattle University Law Review], vol. 17, no. 3 (Spring 1994): 517-531

"Regulation and Its Discontents:  Understanding Economic Law in China," Stanford Journal of International Law, vol. 28, no. 2 (Spring 1992): 283-322

"Dispute Resolution in China," Journal of Chinese Law [succeeded by Columbia Journal of Asian Law], vol. 5, no. 2 (Fall 1991): 245-296

"What's Law Got to Do with It?  Legal Institutions and Economic Reform in China," UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal, vol. 10, no. 1 (Fall 1991): 1-76

"Law, the State and Economic Reform in China," in Gordon White (ed.), The Chinese State in the Era of Economic Reform:  The Road to Crisis (London: Macmillan, 1991): 190-211

"Implementation of Central Policy and the Law in China," European Association for Chinese Law Information Bulletin (1991)

"Foreign Economic Laws and Bureaucracy in China," European Association for Chinese Law Information Bulletin, vol. 5, no. 4 (December 1989): 3-7

Review of Michael J. Moser (ed.), Foreign Trade, Investment, and the Law in the People's Republic of China (2nd ed. 1987), in Lloyd's Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly, 1989, Part 1: 129-130 (February 1989)

Review of Frank K. Upham, Law and Social Change in Postwar Japan (1987), in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. 52, no. 2 (1989): 391-392

Contribution on the People's Republic of China for "Crime and Punishment" section of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1989)

"Relief on the Way for Foreign Investors," South (June 1987): 32

Review of J. Oldham, ed., China's Legal Development (1986), in China Quarterly, no. 109 (March 1987): 122-123

"The Management Liability of Directors," Law in Japan, vol. 20 (1987): 150-172 (translation from Japanese of M. Kondô, "Torishimariyaku no keiei sekinin")

Review of D.T.C. Wang, Les sources du droit de la République populaire de Chine (1982), in China Quarterly, no. 108 (December 1986): 727-728

Review of M.D. Pendleton, Intellectual Property Law in the People's Republic of China (1986), in European Intellectual Property Review, vol. 8, no. 10 (October 1986): 323-324

Review of D. Solinger, Chinese Business Under Socialism: The Politics of Domestic Commerce, 1949-1980 (1984), in China Quarterly, no. 106 (June 1986): 348-350

Review of P. Gladwin & A. Hameed, Guide to the Patent Law of the People's Republic of China (1985), in European Intellectual Property Review, vol. 8, no. 5 (May 1986): 160

"China's New Rule of Law," Britain-China, no. 31 (Spring 1986): 11-14

"Political Power and Authority in Recent Chinese Literature," China Quarterly, no. 102 (June 1985): 234-252

"Concepts of Law in the Chinese Anti-Crime Campaign," Harvard Law Review, vol. 98, no. 8 (June 1985): 1890-1908

"Proposed Consent Agreement Between General Motors Corporation and Toyota Motor Corporation," Harvard International Law Journal, vol. 25, no. 2 (Spring 1984): 421-427